what advantages did persia have at the battle of thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae is believed to have been fought in August 480 BC, during the Persian Wars (499 BC-449 BC). [c] However, compared to the probable time (about one month) between Thermopylae and Salamis, the time bought was negligible. The narrowness of the pass negated the advantage the Persians had in numbers. It is not for riches that they contend but for honour!" [51], Herodotus tells us that Leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons. After defeating the Persian defence, Alexander continued through the Mountains and soon reached Persepolis where he seized the Persian royal treasury and burned the royal palace to the ground – a symbolic end to Achaemenid rule over Persia. The battle of Thermopylae is considered to be one of the biggest and most memorable battles in all of ancient history. At daybreak on the third day, the Phocians guarding the path were stunned to see the advancing Persians. Credited writers for the film are: George St. George, Gian Paolo Callegari, Remigio Del Grosso, Giovanni d'Eramo, and Ugo Liberatore. [111], It is sometimes stated that Thermopylae was a Pyrrhic victory for the Persians[3][4] (i.e., one in which the victor is as damaged by the battle as the defeated party). They would have to be r… ... Xerxes had every reason to congratulate himself",[139] while Lazenby describes the Greek defeat as "disastrous".[134]. Screenplay by Wendell Mayes, based on the novel "Incident at Muc Wa" by Daniel Ford. What did the Persians do after The Battle of Thermopylae? [100] Ephialtes was motivated by the desire for a reward. In other words, the "orders" are not personal but refer to official and binding phrases (the Ancient Greek term can also refer to a formal speech).[145]. THE BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE The Battle of Thermopylae is a classic example of the Spartan creed of kill or be killed. [64] The poet Simonides, who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million; Ctesias gave 800,000 as the total number of the army that was assembled by Xerxes.[6]. This quiz is incomplete! If they had all remained at the pass, they would have been encircled and would eventually have all been killed. A sign, under the statue, reads simply: "Μολὼν λαβέ" ("Come and take them! [111], The Thebans have also been the subject of some discussion. This reply made battle inevitable, though Xerxes took no action for four days. At Thermopylae battle, held during Persians Wars, 480 B.C. [102] The Immortals had been bloodied on the first day, so it is possible that Hydarnes may have been given overall command of an enhanced force including what was left of the Immortals; according to Diodorus, Hydarnes had a force of 20,000 for the mission. The battle of Thermopylae is one of the most memorable battles fought during the Persian wars. Intended as a full-scale invasion, the task of assembling the necessary troops and supplies consumed several years. "[95] This probably describes the standard Greek phalanx, in which the men formed a wall of overlapping shields and layered spear points protruding out from the sides of the shields, which would have been highly effective as long as it spanned the width of the pass. [101], Herodotus reports that Xerxes sent his commander Hydarnes that evening, with the men under his command, the Immortals, to encircle the Greeks via the path. The headless male figure symbolizes the anonymous sacrifice of the 700 Thespians to their country. Marching from Asia Minor, Xerxes intended to bridge the Hellespont and advance on Greece through Thrace. The remaining soldiers fought to the death. [110] The likelihood is that these were the Theban "loyalists", who unlike the majority of their fellow citizens, objected to Persian domination. [114][120] However, Xerxes was known for his rage. Having been turned back by the Greeks in 490 BC at the Battle of Marathon, the Persians elected to begin preparing a larger expedition to subjugate Greece. However, once there, being warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed through Sarantoporo Pass and that Xerxes' army was overwhelming, the Greeks retreated. Greco-Persian Wars, a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia from 492 to 449 BCE. [99] According to Ctesias, the first wave was "cut to ribbons", with only two or three Spartans killed in return. The Greeks were offered their freedom, the title "Friends of the Persian People", and the opportunity to re-settle on land better than that they possessed. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil. Though the de facto leaders of the alliance, the Spartans were prohibited from engaging in military activity during these celebrations. According to Herodotus[52][68] and Diodorus Siculus,[69] the Greek army included the following forces: Pausanias' account agrees with that of Herodotus (whom he probably read) except that he gives the number of Locrians, which Herodotus declined to estimate. News of the imminent Persian approach eventually reached Greece in August thanks to a Greek spy. “ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment and good use of terrain to maximise an army’s potential, as well as a symbol of courage against extremely overwhelming odds.” [134] It seems clear that the Greek strategy was to hold off the Persians at Thermopylae and Artemisium;[77] whatever they may have intended, it was presumably not their desire to surrender all of Boeotia and Attica to the Persians. "—as in answer to Xerxes' demand that the Greeks give up their weapons). Cicero recorded a Latin variation in his Tusculanae Disputationes (1.42.101): Additionally, there is a modern monument at the site, called the "Leonidas Monument" by Vassos Falireas, in honour of the Spartan king. Leonidas was in charge of the Greek forces; Xerxes of the Persians. Edit; Sorry for not being as clear. [133] Ever since, the events of Thermopylae have been the source of effusive praise from many sources: "Salamis, Plataea, Mycale and Sicily are the fairest sister-victories which the Sun has ever seen, yet they would never dare to compare their combined glory with the glorious defeat of King Leonidas and his men". Greek epitaphs often appealed to the passing reader (always called 'stranger') for sympathy, but the epitaph for the dead Spartans at Thermopylae took this convention much further than usual, asking the reader to make a personal journey to Sparta to break the news that the Spartan expeditionary force had been wiped out. As a previous Persian fleet had been wrecked off Mount Athos, Xerxes intended to build a canal across the mountain's isthmus. [104] Hydarnes was perhaps just as amazed to see them hastily arming themselves as they were to see him and his forces. Xerxes delayed for four days, waiting for the Greeks to disperse, before sending troops to attack them.[61]. [168] While this anniversary will take place in 2021, the coins show the dates 2020 and 480 BC and the text "2,500 years since the Battle of Thermopylae. [80], It is often claimed that at the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Malian Gulf so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time. [53] In fact, as noted below, the pass was 100 metres wide, probably wider than the Greeks could have held against the Persian masses. Thermopylae: Battle for the West. With the failure of the first assaults, Xerxes ordered an attack by his elite Immortals later in the day. The encounter took place between Greece and their allies (Thespians and Thebans) which were led by King Leonidas, and the Persian Empire led by Xerxes I. M. Trundle, “Thermopylae”, in: C. Matthew and M. Trundle (eds. The number of Persian troops present at Thermopylae is therefore as uncertain as the number for the total invasion force. As Holland puts it, "in short...we will never know. [137][140] Thermopylae is famous because of the heroism of the doomed rearguard, who, despite facing certain death, remained at the pass. Leonidas answered: "If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions; but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race. After Xerxes crossed the Hellespont (the strait that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea), he headed south to attack Athens. This was remarkable for the disjointed and chaotic Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other. Increasingly overwhelmed, the surviving Greeks fell back behind the wall and made a last stand on a small hill. However, the following year saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion. [66][b] These estimates usually come from studying the logistical capabilities of the Persians in that era, the sustainability of their respective bases of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting them. [78], Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare. The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Greek navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf, where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens to the island of Salamis. Hi, I'm doing a project on the Battle of Thermopylae and our class is supposed to use the 'Persian War' by Herodotus and our textbooks as sources. Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. was a king of the city-state of Sparta from about 490 B.C. [61][92] The Persians soon launched a frontal assault, in waves of around 10,000 men, on the Greek position. Receiving news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont, a second strategy was put forward by Themistocles which called for making at stand at the pass of Thermopylae. The most popular misconception about the Battle of Thermopylae probably relates to the numbers fielded in the battle. [107] Some of the Greeks argued for withdrawal, but Leonidas resolved to stay at the pass with the Spartans. Moving north with 300 men from the royal guard, Leonidas gathered additional troops en route to Thermopylae. What advantages did the Greeks have at Thermopylae? The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros, to whom the ancient Thespians accorded particular religious veneration. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. How did the Persians win the Battle of ... plus 300 of his own Spartan warriors, with which he was expected to hold back the might of the Persian Army at the Pass of Thermopylae. This confuses me greatly, because my textbook does not mention where the Persians … Moreover, by defending two constricted passages (Thermopylae and Artemisium), the Greeks' inferior numbers became less of a factor. [73], Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable,[74] add the 1,000 Lacedemonians and the 900 helots to Herodotus' 5,200 to obtain 7,100 or about 7,000 men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians. The Battle at Salamis: When the Persian king, Xerxes, invaded Greece in the spring of 480 BCE, he did so at the head of a vast army. An alliance of Greek city-states of about 6,700 men fought the invading Persian Empire, which had an army of about 242,000 men, at the pass of Thermopylae in … They have won the battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, and have conquered Greek city-state of Boeotia, Thessaly, and Attica; however, Greek navy attacked and decisively defeated the Persian army at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC and was able to prevent Persians from conquering an another Greek city-state; Peloponnesus. [114] In 1939, archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos, excavating at Thermopylae, found large numbers of Persian bronze arrowheads on Kolonos Hill, which changed the identification of the hill on which the Greeks were thought to have died from a smaller one nearer the wall. Or, in exchange, must all through the whole Laconian country, Mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles. The Battle of Thermopylae [thər móppəlee] (Template:Lang-el) took place over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the pass of Thermopylae ('The Hot Gates'). In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed by throwing them in a pit; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well. Upon hearing this, Tigranes, a Persian general, said: "Good heavens, Mardonius, what kind of men are these that you have pitted against us? But Thermopylae did – crucially – prove that the Persian war machine could be stopped. [32] Finally, it moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a heavily outnumbered Athenian army. Leonidas stationed 1,000 Phocians on the heights to prevent such a manoeuvre. To this Leonidas reputedly replied, "Come and get them." Herodotus suggests they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behavior of Thebes. [130] At the Battle of Plataea, the Greek army won a decisive victory, destroying much of the Persian army and ending the invasion of Greece. For centuries, students, scholars, historians and military strategists have studied it, and they continue to do so. Congress adopted this dual-pronged strategy. According to Plutarch, Xerxes, king of Persia, demanded that the Spartans surrender their weapons and King Leonidas I responded with the phrase “Molon labe”, which means “Come and take them”. [161], In 1997, a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the 700 Thespians who fought with the Spartans. the Greeks defended the Thermopylae pass against the Persians. But Thermopylae was always hailed as a triumph for Greek arms because the Persian army was crucially delayed. [116], The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army, according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20,000 fatalities. Here, therefore, we must remain; and the Persians, if they go through the pass at all, must go through it over our graves. The Persian Empire was still relatively young and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae. The battle was fought for over three days, at the same time as the naval Battle of Artemisium on 20 August or 8–10 September, 480 BC. Responding, an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Athens and Sparta, assembled a fleet and an army to oppose the invaders. Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Greek fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis, which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese. It has been reported that others also remained, including up to 900 helots and 400 Thebans. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians. While some Greeks saw it as an excuse to ally with the Persians, others admired the Spartan example and redoubled their efforts to resist the Asian tide. [48] It was also the time of the Olympic Games, and therefore the Olympic truce, and thus it would have been doubly sacrilegious for the whole Spartan army to march to war. [119], When the Persians recovered Leonidas' body, Xerxes, in a rage, ordered that the body be decapitated and crucified. The naked body symbolizes Eros, the most important god of the ancient Thespians, a god of creation, beauty and life. The Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the Persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Recent core samples indicate that the pass was only 100 metres (330 ft) wide, and the waters came up to the gates: "Little do the visitors realize that the battle took place across the road from the monument. [118] Herodotus says, at one point 4,000 Greeks died, but assuming the Phocians guarding the track were not killed during the battle (as Herodotus implies), this would be almost every Greek soldier present (by Herodotus' own estimates), and this number is probably too high. This offended the proud Greeks greatly; the Athenians went so far as to toss the Persian heralds into a pit, while the Spartans followed suit and tossed them into a well. [61] The Greeks fought in front of the Phocian wall, at the narrowest part of the pass, which enabled them to use as few soldiers as possible. This expedition against Athens threatened all of Greece. The Battle of Thermopylae is a battle in September 480 BC during the Greek-Persian war (480 — 479 BC). Many of the Greek contingents then either chose to withdraw (without orders) or were ordered to leave by Leonidas (Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened). [111] If the position had been held for even a little longer, the Persians might have had to retreat for lack of food and water. Refusing this offer, the Greeks were then ordered to lay down their weapons. [44] Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont. The metope below depicts battle scenes. The Spartan phalanx proved more than sufficient for slaughtering thousands of Persians. The primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus. Persian Archers by … [15] George B. Grundy was the first modern historian to do a thorough topographical survey of the narrow pass at Thermopylae, and to the extent that modern accounts of the battle differ from Herodotus' where they usually follow Grundy's. 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