Since 1973, several revisions have been made and it works as under: (1) Index record has been added to the system. 77(3). They are also called temporary executives whereas the members of the central secretariat are permanent executives —their tenure does not depend on the vicissitudes of politics or political events. These posts may have been created originally to relieve the overburdened secretary but there is no specific unit of administration of which this officer is put in charge. The senior positions were manned by provincial officers borrowed on deputation. They forget that rights and duties are correlative. Failure to make adequate provision in this respect cannot be compensated by mere increase in the establishment under his control. To assist the Prime Minister and his cabinet or council-of ministers there is a secretariat which is also called cabinet secretariat. Content Guidelines 2. In hierarchy, the post status below the joint secretary is placed above the deputy secretary. He, of course, alone does not do the job. But for the some reason it hesitated to accept committee recommen­dation, because each year spent by an officer in the secretariat weakens that contact. This situation was the primary reason of the creation of the cabinet secretariat. Relevant facts and figures available in the department are put up as precedents or papers containing previous decisions and policy. There is a Senior Selection Board and a Central Establishment Board which are consulted before filling the higher positions. The joint secretary of a department/ministry is a key adminis­trative functionary and his imprint on policy and decision-making in government is immense. At the central level there is the Prime Minister and to assist him there is a council of ministers. However, the personnel study team of the Administrative Reforms Commission as well as the commission itself suggested the creation of a definite level of additional secretary. The prominent persons of cabinet government are of the opinion that the PM is the primus inter pares. The Constitution of India has adopted the Westminster model of parliamentary system and in this type of government cabinet consists of top politicians having wide experience in administration and good hold in party. Thus the two words secretary and secretness are closely related concepts. The discontinuation of recruitment to this pool after 1946 and depleting of the strength caused by retirement of British officers, transfers arising out of partition and routine retire­ments necessitated a re-examination of the entire question of manning superior secretariat posts. PM and other categories of ministers who are all important actors of the decision-making process. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. When a secretary has an unmanageable charge of one or more wings, a joint secretary may take charge of each wing. A deputy secretary in a department acts on behalf of the secretary. It may mean any position at a given time depending upon ‘the nature and type of work’. From 1947 to 1964 (year of Nehru’s death) India’s cabinet form of government was actually the Prime Ministerial form of government. But the post continues even after the fulfillment of requirement. (2) Officers borrowed from the state cadres of the all India services and from other Class I services of the states (other than the state civil service) on tenure deputation. In the central government there are thus PM, council of ministers and a secretariat. There are certain service conditions of employees which require details relating to facts from first hand infor­mation by a field officer. And when the dismal failure greets them they only blame their fate or make God fully responsible for the failure. Wheeler’s arguments for tenure system were: (1) The experience will train civil servants to assume responsibilities and cultivate a sound judgement. The number of OSD, is always more than needed in terms of the nature of work given to them. The PMO assists him in the successful discharge of all the various types of duties. The members or officers of the secretariat conduct correspondence keep records and in this way manage the administrative organisation. The British PM has his secretariat to give him advice and suggestions. The heads of the executive organ are ministers and the PM is the head of them. Weekly summaries on the cases disposed of at lower levels in his ministers/ department are submitted for his perusal. We Indians are compelled to adjust ourselves with this untoward situation. The system institutionalises the need for change at higher levels and the Maxwell Committee viewed its range from Governor-General’s council members to junior under secretaries. Their supervisory duties in the manual are numbered as: distribution of work among his staff; training, helping and advising the staff; coordination of work in the section, ensuring prompt and efficient disposal or work in the section and adoption of proper methods for progressing of cases; timely submission of arrear statements and other periodical returns; proper maintenance of section diary, file register, assistants’ diary and other necessary registers; ensuring compliance with instructions regarding treatment and safeguarding of secret papers; seeing that other departments are consulted before the issue of orders; preventing the growth of omnibus files; issuing reminders, acknowledgements, etc. Following are the functions of the Secretariat: (1) A very important function of the secretariat is to assist the minister in the field of policy-making. But in reality there are differences. It is because this branch of public administration is the conglomeration of all administrative departments of central government. Short title and commencement.- To remove stagnation at the levels of the deputy secretary and the joint secretary the posts of director and additional secretary have been created. (8) Some people are entrusted with the task of implementing the decision or policy of the government. Some interpreters of India’s administrative system said that the Prime Minister’s Secretariat became extremely powerful and so powerful that important ministers holding top positions in the party structure had no say in administration and policy-making affairs. During British regime the departmentalisation of administration was not so wide and complex. Sometimes he is placed in charge of a department and does the work of a secretary; at other times he is put at the head of a wing and performs the tasks of a joint secretary. (7) An important function of Cabinet Secretary is he is the real and most effective link between political and non-political aspects of public administration. If a ministry has more than one department, it may have more secretaries, but only one senior will represent the ministry. In such cases, the joint secretary is vested with the maximum measure of independent functioning and responsibility in respect of business falling within his wing. For example, we very often use the term home department. Today India’s Five Year Plans play a very important role in our development process. This led to the formation of the Finance Commerce Pool of officers of the Indian Civil Service and other superior services and the Indian Audit and Accounts Service and the Customs Service in 1938. It tends to addition to work of the secretary; loss of initiative and consequently uneconomical utilisation of the services of the joint secretary who becomes a glorified deputy secretary, and an avoidable increase in the hierarchical stages of the secretariat personnel, with consequent delay and inefficiency.”. It is true that the cabinet decides, but it is also true that no decision can be taken without his approval. There are expert bureaucrats in the cabinet secretariat and the PM or any minister can seek the advice or suggestions of the cabinet secretariat. The person holding the post of Cabinet Secretary will have to discharge the following functions: (1) The Cabinet Secretary is the chief administrative adviser to the PM Needless to say that when at the time of Lal Bahadur Shastri, the Cabinet secretariat was created this particular function of the head of the Cabinet Secretariat was in mind. The towering personality of Nehru surpassed everything in the arena of central government. The administration is becoming more and more complex and this has ultimately necessitated a secretary. One point demands special emphasis. It is now time to point out the major loopholes of the central administration.It is a very common notion that the purpose of every administration is to ensure good governance. But since the administration is a single unit there is a great necessity of coordinating the departments and this, function is performed by the cabinet secretariat. But the ministry is temporary. This crucial function is to be performed by our civil administration. The cabinet consists of advisers to the Prime Minister and is composed of few ministers. He says, “In 1977, the Janata government under Morarji Desai as Prime Minister came into power and one of the earliest measures of Morarji Desai was to curb the powers and functions of this formidable body. The field to draw upon is already small and the lengthening of the tenure of office might result in the contraction of this field. Report a Violation, Difference between Cabinet Secretariat and Prime Minister’s Secretariat. But the fact is that the cabinet secretariat did not find any opportunity to discharge its function. A deputy secretary has to supervise, direct and guide the activities of the branch. Since efficiency and experience are the chief criteria of the post of cabinet secretary, it is found that, generally, a civil servant is appointed to this post towards the end of his service life. The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/ Departments of the Government There are several branches of central administration and very important ones are budgeting, expenditure, policy-making of central administration and making drafts for legislation. There are several posts of special secretaries for which pay is determined in each case on merit. The officers come on tenure and the continually is provided by the office comprising section officers, assistants, upper division clerks. The exceptions are found in the foreign affairs, Indian audit and accounts, posts and telegraphs, customs and income tax departments. The PM may belong to a party but he is to adjust or compromise with other partners of the coalition government and naturally the authority of the PM is not absolute. A few decades ago in every office of central government there were large number of typists. Prohibited Content 3. Hence certain amount of temporariness is associated with the term ministry. The PMO is the centre of Indian administration. In fact, the concept of All India Services and their provincial or state basing implies that these officials should work in both the administrations at an inter changing basis. (6) Other state civil service officers, in consultation with the Union Public Service Commission. The function of independent India have enormously increased and, at the same time, the necessity of assisting the central ministers was strongly felt. But some critics are ‘of opinion that the experienced bureaucrats play the most crucial role. Disclaimer 9. He is the first line supervisor in the secretariat hierarchy and is expected to settle minor cases in his own discretion. (6) Cabinet Secretary is the head of the civil service department. In India also the PM is the most powerful man. These new functionaries had not been recommended by any pay commission. Because, the administration is a formal matter. Hence a secretary is not an ordinary person but a man of experience. The levels of decision-making in the secretariat are at the levels of the under secretary, the deputy secretary and the secretary. He holds charge of a secre­tariat division and is responsible for the disposal of government business under his charge. The General Secretariat provides the organisation with comprehensive corporate services in the areas of IT, human resources, finance, facilities management, security and meeting services. The second category of functions require the officials to examine the case and see that all matters requiring decisions are brought forward and to tabulate and summarise infor­mation, where necessary. This prevents induction of officers with fresh experience and officers otherwise eligible for secretariat postings remain unutilised. The secretary is the adminis­trative head of the department and he is directly related with the minister who is m the charge of department. Naturally all vital decisions about planning are taken by him or he assists in matter of taking decision. But the draft of law is prepared by the secretariat and after that it is sent to the minister for his opinion or approval. During the British regime the purpose of administration was to maintain law and order. The vastness and peculiarities of India have made her administration highly complicated. This system has since been introduced and adopted by almost all the ministries. In almost all important political and administrative issues the PM is to take decisions and this he does in accordance with the advice given by the PMO. Each department (or sub department or branch department) has a secretary. These posts were created as a result of the recommendation of the Secretariat Committee of 1919. All these are his proper functions and must be efficiently performed. We, thus, find that both the cabinet and the cabinet secretariat or central secretariat are indispens­able parts of central administrative system. Functions under the first category include seeing of all papers or notes arranged and paged with correct marginal references. I have already pointed out that this- function is performed by the cabinet secretariat. The introduction of a new post designated as Special Secretary is a example of this distur­bance. Important files go upward in such a way that the deputy secretary may take decisions. The service members work under restrictions and rules of Central Civil Services … We may note the following usages-Home ministry or Defence ministry or Finance ministry. One is —many matters or problems or issues are referred to the deputy secretary for disposal and he himself does the job. But the proper allocation of resources is heavily flawed. In fact, the officer cannot discharge his duties without a secretary. When they are correctly employed, they take decisions at the same level as a secretary…. Whenever any problem regarding administration arises the cabinet secretariat solves it. The secretariat helps the ministers in their individual and collective capacity to formulate policies on all matters of state administration. We thus find that into the central administration are included PM, council of ministers and secretariat. Hence in Britain both the cabinet secretary and cabinet secretariat were the results of evolution or product of times. The large and frequent interchange of personnel between the Centre and the states has increasingly tended to dry up. To initiate new measures for public administration is another function. But some scholars on Indian administration e.g., S. R. Maheswari, differ. With its proximity to the seats of power, the secretariat tends to be the repository of all powers and authority of the state government. The Secretariat’s task is to coordinate legislative work and organise plenary sittings and meetings. The proposal met a storm of protests from the states and from the Indian Administrative Service Associations which led to its suspension. The replacement of the unitary government by a federal one under the Republican constitution blurs the line of demar­cation between the Centre and the states. The PMO provides all information and other details required by the PM. The designation has a peculiar charm for public servants. •Economics and Domestic Affairs Secretariat •Strategy Unit •European and Global Issues Secretariat •National Security Secretariat •Joint Intelligence Organisation •Efficiency and Reform •Corporate Services Group •The Central Office of Information •The National School of Government There are two aspects of Indian administration —one is theoretical or con­stitutional and the other is practical. 2. There is no uniform terminology describing the various segments of administrative structure of the Union government. He is very often the only one to utter the last word about India’s stand on both these issues. Organisation; Central Services; The Secretariat General; The Secretariat General. It is essential that he should have time to grasp the overall picture, size up the problems facing government in the field allotted to his charge, and think and plan ahead. “Under Shastri, the influence of the cabinet declined and that of the Prime Minister’s secretariat increased, a trend which continued under Mrs. Gandhi. The officers who possess this necessary experience may be asked to opt for the secretariat or the field. No important decision or policy can be taken or adopted or imple­mented without the approval or knowledge of the cabinet secretariat. Society has been formed by working Govt. Regarding this function the following comment has been made: “The Cabinet Secretary provided the eyes and ears for the Prime Minister to keep in touch’ with the process of official business in the central government” Quoted by Avasthi and. (3) Every desk officer has clerical facilities added. The central secretariat is a collection of a variety of ministries and departments. secretariat definition: 1. the office or people responsible for the management of an organization, especially an…. The members of the parliament raise questions and the ministers give reply. The self-evaluation is an important duty of the secretariat of central administration. We thus find that the administration and good governance are inseparable concepts. It adds to the speed and improves the quality of decisions. Under this system, the work of a ministry or department at the lowest level is organised into different functional desks each manned by an officer of appropriate rank, that is under secretary, section officer or assistant, who handles the case himself with the adequate stenographic/clerical assistance. There is still an important function of the cabinet secretariat. But the replies are prepared by the civil servants who are parts of the cabinet secretariat. The officials prepare drafts in accordance with orders for timely execution. He is the chief spokesman of his government. The verbal exchange of opinion is generally avoided. Naturally, this department is the initiator of all policies or decisions. Additional secretary ships and joint secretary ships are filled by members of the Indian Administrative Service. The ordinary people are to run from pillar to post in search of justice or for the removal of grievances. In fact, (2) it strengthens the office at the cost of district experience. Here lies the importance of the cabinet secretariat. The WISA Secretariat became the central secretariat of the OECS and the ECCM, the Economic Affairs Secretariat. It shall perform the functions assigned to it in the Charter, in other inter-American treaties and agreements, and by the General Assembly, and shall carry out the duties entrusted to it by the General Assembly, the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, or the Councils. The BCBS reports to the Group of Central Bank Governors and Heads of Supervision (GHOS) - its oversight body - and seeks its endorsement for major decisions. The period for additional secretary is four years. These officers stay in their special posts ‘indefinitely’, while the post is inherently of a temporary nature. From the time of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister the responsibility and functions of the cabinet secretariat have increased voluminously. It is said that what PM says and will say is more or less framed by the top bureaucrats of the PMO. An undersecretary holds the charge of a branch. We very often use different terms almost interchangeably. Whatever it may, be there is no doubt about his efficiency and seniority. Mobility apart, it is enriching to generalists and even technical officers to look forward for pastures anew”. We thus find that at the time of Indira Gandhi’s Prime Ministership the Prime Minister’s Office was created. If joint secretary is to be promoted on the higher position then deputation period is adjusted in the way that he may serve as additional secretary for minimum three years. The interposition of such officers between the secretary and his deputy has always been disliked and almost every committee has recommended either the abolition of these posts or a drastic reduction in their number. In the structure of central administration there is a post of additional secretary. They do not revert to the provincial secretariats. An important stage of the central administrative structure is the post of officer on special duty (OSD). The FSB is governed by its Charter, Articles of Association and Procedural Guidelines. The Fifth Pay Commission pleaded for the strengthening of the system. There are generally two methods in the discharge of duties. In many cases the officers are more powerful than the ministers. NDO/VNA – The Party Central Committee’s Secretariat on January 5 called on the entire political system and people to tighten and follow COVID-19 prevention and control measures as the pandemic has still seen complicated developments in many countries around the world with the appearance of new and more contagious strains of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. His sources of power are not one but many—one is his personality and the other is his party. The frames of the policies or decisions are sent to the ministers for approval. In a word, the PM is the chief spokesperson of the government and the only key-figure of the central administrative structure. The Maxwell Report (1937), recommended its abolition. Frequently or periodi­cally it evaluates its functions and revises the principles. To accommodate persons or to meet unexpected emergency needs of flexibility in administration, this post is created. Moreover, if some work is of a purely temporary character, it may be meaningfully concen­trated in one hand. In this situation the deputy secretary can directly assist him or give his opinion. The internal hierarchy of the Ministry is as under: (1) Department – Secretary/Additional/Special Secretary, (6) Office – Assistant, Clerk, Subordinate. Rather he is first unrivalled and dominating in the entire cabinet. 1. Others obtain high posts. Even at its best, I consider the arrangement to be unsatisfactory. of the union government pass through the PMO. This status has also changed. He is the Chairman of the Planning Commission. Reversion to departments/states is just to complete a formality. Today as secretary a happy state of affairs. ” experts and renowned economists deal.. Officers borrowed on deputation or sets of government and this crucial job is to co-ordinate the functions of office! 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