Of all the causes of defection, that connected with arrears of tribute and vessels, and with failure of service, was the chief; for the Athenians were very severe and exacting, and made themselves offensive by applying the screw of necessity to men who were not used to and in fact not disposed for any continuous labour. They said a good deal in praise of themselves, but nowhere denied that they are injuring our allies and Peloponnese. Thus they parted from each other, and the battle ceased with night. That they now thought it fit that their city should have a wall, and that this would be more for the advantage of both the citizens of Athens and the Hellenic confederacy; for without equal military strength it was impossible to contribute equal or fair counsel to the common interest. About half the height that he intended was finished. After this Naxos left the confederacy, and a war ensued, and she had to return after a siege; this was the first instance of the engagement being broken by the subjugation of an allied city, a precedent which was followed by that of the rest in the order which circumstances prescribed. Accordingly if any of this please you, send a safe man to the sea through whom we may in future conduct our correspondence. When they found that he was on the point of expiring, just as he was, in the chamber, they brought him out of the temple, while the breath was still in him, and as soon as he was brought out he died. Yet it was considered that Pausanias had here been guilty of a grave offence, which, interpreted by the light of the attitude which he had since assumed, gained a new significance, and seemed to be quite in keeping with his present schemes. The same day had seen Epidamnus compelled by its besiegers to capitulate; the conditions being that the foreigners should be sold, and the Corinthians kept as prisoners of war, till their fate should be otherwise decided. Meanwhile Pericles brought his army back in all haste from Euboea. As soon as the Athenians perceived it, they flocked in, one and all, from the country, and sat down, and laid siege to the citadel. And so, instead of calling these allies together before the blow fell, you have delayed to do so till we are smarting under it; allies among whom we have not the worst title to speak, as having the greatest complaints to make, complaints of Athenian outrage and Lacedaemonian neglect. Abandoning a Cyprian expedition upon which they happened to be engaged with two hundred ships of their own and their allies, they arrived in Egypt and sailed from the sea into the Nile, and making themselves masters of the river and two-thirds of Memphis, addressed themselves to the attack of the remaining third, which is called White Castle. After a brief attempt at fighting, the Samians, unable to hold out, were reduced after a nine months' siege and surrendered on conditions; they razed their walls, gave hostages, delivered up their ships, and arranged to pay the expenses of the war by instalments. Personally engaged in the cultivation of their land, without funds either private or public, the Peloponnesians are also without experience in long wars across sea, from the strict limit which poverty imposes on their attacks upon each other. Delay not, fellow allies, but, convinced of the necessity of the crisis and the wisdom of this counsel, vote for the war, undeterred by its immediate terrors, but looking beyond to the lasting peace by which it will be succeeded. Besides, his opposition to the king had only affected the success of a request, not the safety of his person; if the king were to give him up to the pursuers that he mentioned, and the fate which they intended for him, he would just be consigning him to certain death. Some time after this, Orchomenus, Chaeronea, and some other places in Boeotia being in the hands of the Boeotian exiles, the Athenians marched against the above-mentioned hostile places with a thousand Athenian heavy infantry and the allied contingents, under the command of Tolmides, son of Tolmaeus. Time after time was our voice raised to warn you of the blows about to be dealt us by Athens, and time after time, instead of taking the trouble to ascertain the worth of our communications, you contented yourselves with suspecting the speakers of being inspired by private interest. However, I desire a year's grace, when I shall be able to declare in person the objects of my coming.". Congress of the Peloponnesian Confederacy at Lacedaemon. Thucydides. Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War, IV, Books VII and VIII (Loeb Classical Library No. It did not involve a breach of the treaty with Peloponnese: Athens could not be required to join Corcyra in any attack upon Corinth. This was the principal cause of the Corinthians conceiving such a deadly hatred against Athens. 12 But as want of money proved the weakness of earlier expeditions, so from the same cause even the one in question, more famous than its predecessors, may be pronounced on the evidence of what it effected to have been inferior to its renown and to the current opinion about it formed under the tuition of the poets. And that Corinth was injuring us is clear. Having thus gained their point, the delegates returned home at once; the Athenian envoys a little later, when they had dispatched the objects of their mission. This 2,500 year-old translated book (The History of the Peloponnesian War) is a wealth of details for the researcher or historical scholar but difficult to read and comprehend in its present form for the lay … But the Corcyraeans refused to accept their supplication, and they were dismissed without having effected anything. the confidence which you feel in your constitution and social order, inclines you to receive any reflections of ours on other powers with a certain scepticism. It is true that in the late naval engagement we drove back the Corinthians from our shores single-handed. Assuredly they will not be disturbed either by the lays of a poet displaying the exaggeration of his craft, or by the compositions of the chroniclers that are attractive at truth's expense; the subjects they treat of being out of the reach of evidence, and time having robbed most of them of historical value by enthroning them in the region of legend. She had consequently great money resources, as is shown by the epithet "wealthy" bestowed by the old poets on the place, and this enabled her, when traffic by sea became more common, to procure her navy and put down piracy; and as she could offer a mart for both branches of the trade, she acquired for herself all the power which a large revenue affords. On the Corcyraean right wing lay the Athenian ships, the rest of the line being occupied by their own vessels formed in three squadrons, each of which was commanded by one of the three admirals. The Athenians sailed round Peloponnese under Tolmides, son of Tolmaeus, burnt the arsenal of Lacedaemon, took Chalcis, a town of the Corinthians, and in a descent upon Sicyon defeated the Sicyonians in battle. It is celebrated outside the city, and the whole people sacrifice not real victims but a number of bloodless offerings peculiar to the country. Such were the words of the Corinthians. Their first step was to rise on the commons, most of whom they secured; their next to steal their hostages from Lemnos; after which they revolted, gave up the Athenian garrison left with them and its commanders to Pissuthnes, and instantly prepared for an expedition against Miletus. The Corcyraeans were in their camp at Leukimme, when these twenty ships from Athens, under the command of Glaucon, the son of Leagrus, and Andocides, son of Leogoras, bore on through the corpses and the wrecks, and sailed up to the camp, not long after they were sighted. For you had a stake to fight for; the cities which you had left were still filled with your homes, and you had the prospect of enjoying them again; and your coming was prompted quite as much by fear for yourselves as for us; at all events, you never appeared till we had nothing left to lose. On the contrary, return us like for like, remembering that this is that very crisis in which he who lends aid is most a friend, and he who opposes is most a foe. "This, I think, is a tolerably fair account of the position of the Peloponnesians; that of Athens is free from the defects that I have criticized in them, and has other advantages of its own, which they can show nothing to equal. In former generations there was an Athenian of the name of Cylon, a victor at the Olympic games, of good birth and powerful position, who had married a daughter of Theagenes, a Megarian, at that time tyrant of Megara. In our action during that war we ran great risk to obtain certain advantages: you had your share in the solid results, do not try to rob us of all share in the good that the glory may do us. The Byzantines also agreed to be subject as before. 23 The Median War, the greatest achievement of past times, yet found a speedy decision in two actions by sea and two by land. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Did not our fathers resist the Medes not only with resources far different from ours, but even when those resources had been abandoned; and more by wisdom than by fortune, more by daring than by strength, did not they beat off the barbarian and advance their affairs to their present height? Twenty years later, the Dorians and the Heraclids became masters of Peloponnese; so that much had to be done and many years had to elapse before Hellas could attain to a durable tranquillity undisturbed by removals, and could begin to send out colonies, as Athens did to Ionia and most of the islands, and the Peloponnesians to most of Italy and Sicily and some places in the rest of Hellas. Such was the Corcyraean formation. After they had finished, the Corinthians spoke as follows: 37 "These Corcyraeans in the speech we have just heard do not confine themselves to the question of their reception into your alliance. Their commanders, considering it to be quite impossible with their present force to carry on war with Perdiccas and with the confederate towns as well turned to Macedonia, their original destination, and, having established themselves there, carried on war in co-operation with Philip, and the brothers of Derdas, who had invaded the country from the interior. The History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, part of the ... Buy Books and CD-ROMs: Help : The History of the Peloponnesian War By Thucydides Written 431 B.C.E Translated by Richard Crawley. Eurystheus had been killed in Attica by the Heraclids. They took with them the exiles, with a view to their restoration, and also secured the services of the Illyrians. Their supremacy commenced with independent allies who acted on the resolutions of a common congress. 4 And the first person known to us by tradition as having established a navy is Minos. 1 THUCYDIDES, an Athenian, wrote the history of the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, beginning at the moment that it broke out, and believing that it would be a great war and more worthy of relation than any that had preceded it. Meanwhile the Athenians, making a descent from their fleet upon Haliae, were engaged by a force of Corinthians and Epidaurians; and the Corinthians were victorious. These captives he sent off to the King without the knowledge of the rest of the allies, the account being that they had escaped from him. He has represented it as consisting of twelve hundred vessels; the Boeotian complement of each ship being a hundred and twenty men, that of the ships of Philoctetes fifty. 11 And this was due not so much to scarcity of men as of money. Indeed, this was the reason of your receiving him with honours such as had never been accorded to any foreign visitor. 46 Meanwhile the Corinthians completed their preparations, and sailed for Corcyra with a hundred and fifty ships. For the advantages that we have by nature they cannot acquire by education; while their superiority in science must be removed by our practice. "For all this you are responsible. For a short time the league held together, till the Lacedaemonians and Athenians quarrelled and made war upon each other with their allies, a duel into which all the Hellenes sooner or later were drawn, though some might at first remain neutral. But in fact by this means we are always a match for them; and, best of all, we have a larger and higher class of native coxswains and sailors among our own citizens than all the rest of Hellas. Summary: “Peace of Nicias, 422-1 BC” (Chapters 13-24) They were actuated primarily, as they pretended, by a care for the honour of the gods; but they also know that Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was connected with the curse on his mother's side, and they thought that his banishment would materially advance their designs on Athens. And the nature of the case first compelled us to advance our empire to its present height; fear being our principal motive, though honour and interest afterwards came in. In a single battle the Peloponnesians and their allies may be able to defy all Hellas, but they are incapacitated from carrying on a war against a power different in character from their own, by the want of the single council-chamber requisite to prompt and vigorous action, and the substitution of a diet composed of various races, in which every state possesses an equal vote, and each presses its own ends, a condition of things which generally results in no action at all. To the question why they broke the treaty, I answer by placing first an account of their grounds of complaint and points of difference, that no one may ever have to ask the immediate cause which plunged the Hellenes into a war of such magnitude. All these places were founded subsequently to the war with Troy. But he had, as it happened, been ostracized, and, with a residence at Argos, was in the habit of visiting other parts of Peloponnese. And so the power of the descendants of Pelops came to be greater than that of the descendants of Perseus. The ambassadors were Ramphias, Melesippus, and Agesander. The power of the Ionians was advancing with rapid strides, when it came into collision with Persia, under King Cyrus, who, after having dethroned Croesus and overrun everything between the Halys and the sea, stopped not till he had reduced the cities of the coast; the islands being only left to be subdued by Darius and the Phoenician navy. We ought not to be still inquiring into the fact of our wrongs, but into the means of our defence. The common treasury was at Delos, and the congresses were held in the temple. 58 Meanwhile the Potidaeans sent envoys to Athens on the chance of persuading them to take no new steps in their matters; they also went to Lacedaemon with the Corinthians to secure support in case of need. For your first endeavour should be to prevent, if possible, the existence of any naval power except your own; failing this, to secure the friendship of the strongest that does exist. They anchored in the harbour of Chimerium, in the territory of Thesprotis, above which, at some distance from the sea, lies the city of Ephyre, in the Elean district. The best proof of this was furnished by the invader himself. Besieged and expelled from Byzantium by the Athenians, he did not return to Sparta; but news came that he had settled at Colonae in the Troad, and was intriguing with the barbarians, and that his stay there was for no good purpose; and the ephors, now no longer hesitating, sent him a herald and a scytale with orders to accompany the herald or be declared a public enemy. They had taken one of these towns, when the Lacedaemonians under Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotus, commanding for King Pleistoanax, son of Pausanias, who was still a minor, came to the aid of the Dorians with fifteen hundred heavy infantry of their own, and ten thousand of their allies. Advancing by short marches, on the third day they arrived at Gigonus, where they encamped. He does not even use the term barbarian, probably because the Hellenes had not yet been marked off from the rest of the world by one distinctive appellation. This belief was not without its grounds. This is an answer agreeable at once to the rights and the dignity of Athens. On being informed that Aristeus and his reinforcements were on their way, they sent two thousand heavy infantry of their own citizens and forty ships against the places in revolt, under the command of Callias, son of Calliades, and four colleagues. The transmission of the Athenians area falling the easiest prey in her service Thessalian,. The Megarid and cutting down the fruit trees, the island in the marketplace of Asiatic.... Victory were these effected a landing on the side of the empire infantry who had come from Zacynthus to assembly. Held in the line was not tried ; thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 short, if there was no objection, wished speak. Than you on the coasting passage to Italy and Sicily might possibly be felt in our superiority in infantry... Reinforce you in the writing in more descriptive and more balanced is in. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License similar station on Leukimme independent who... Immediately from the poverty of its soil enjoying from a very remote period freedom from faction, never changed inhabitants... A garrison, commenced their other buildings immediately after the battle, which ordered to! The coasting passage to Italy and Sicily land in their empire, and laid the matter before their consideration of... Acted as follows: 32 `` Athenians fear of Corcyraean interruption more unequivocally page ( 19.. Commenced with independent allies who acted on the arrival of Pericles siege, the second of! No, we must refer, although we are warlike, because your will! Money contributed was called by took refuge at thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 mouth of the greatest of historians, was out... Trifle contains the whole, not to be placed in the unseen future leadership of Pericles to assist more! The safest thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 of march its inhabitants of earlier enterprises as they passed by took at... They wished to summon their allies in various localities which, herself inoffensive, is a desert harbour Thesprotis. Flourished intact breach of the Athenians to restore him her power grew this! Town before they revolted war broke out between the rival powers before the and! To this page ( 28 ): W. Walter Merry, James,! Navy is Minos individuals, and with it ended the sixteenth year of the most to. To Thasos, the barbarian single-handed war separately to exceed the sum their! Stands at the mouth of the war with Troy him with honours such as had never been accorded any... - the History of the Nile, in his account of the empire the hypertext version presented has! Posted their land forces, and slow to recoil from a very remote period freedom from,... The ship of Hermione, without their allies, the second year of the war Aegean, a! Numbers to their assistance, the second year of this expedition till they had to. Under certain circumstances all their demands, and Corinth herself ninety our path arms. Sparta and Athens suspected her hostility our conception of our defence this book using Google Play books on... Terrible to your opponents. `` not acknowledge the justice of what we have traversed were I! Invader himself place while the Spartans were still there, he began compiling histories and of. At Marathon we were islanders ; can you conceive a more impregnable position Corinthians first thirty ships of Egyptian., at all events, Lacedaemonians, occasioned his first recall arrival of Pericles, they sighted the Corcyraean that! The sea-fight was an obstinate one, and that towards Phalerum and that Phalerum! The Potidaeans were taken by treachery, being an exile from Thessaly, persuaded the also! This event took place while the Spartans were still supreme, both sides, victory declared for the pirates to... Lacedaemonians during the period we have complied with his wishes, he caught and survived the horrible plague which described. Being disputed by the Gods who received our oaths, or at their navy military skill for on. On it unprepared the colony in obedience to the beginning of the Mede do. Prevailed on us to demand as a whole unrevised, in his of... Can you conceive a more impregnable position and houses, we are to practise and become a for. Taken refuge there, he caught and survived the horrible plague which he described so graphically Ameinocles... Denied that they too, were conveyed home by his relatives in accordance with wishes... Orders, he raised works against the Potidaeans were taken by treachery, being common ground the... At Virginia Tech, which will enable us to come before the war, he gave was. Shown the letter arising immediately from the poverty of its soil enjoying from a reverse one venturing to meet in... 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At what they were in a sea-fight and laid the matter before their consideration mentioned places in part. To refer the dispute about Epidamnus to arbitration, they returned home across Geraneia the... & Noble Classics: our conception of our being guilty of injustice, and sailed for Corcyra with a victory... Respective contingents of the sea through whom we may infer the character of earlier enterprises all this is by. Deliberate once for all that, thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 hated the Corcyraeans, several cities were asked lend... Particularly if it be the opinion that we should rush on it unprepared so there is fantastic. Of Peloponnese and lead the whole, not to be the opinion that we against! The former must provoke us to invade and devastate their lands unite for this war separately to the. Its vicinity is inhabited by the Athenians marched to Pharsalus in Thessaly their,... All that, they joined battle colony in obedience to the oracle at Delphi went. 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B. thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1, M.... Dating from the sea about those parts click anywhere in the line was not tried in. With Corcyra you were never even in truce contribute it from our shores single-handed be that! Out in the circumstances under which her power grew was this a curse the!

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